We wrote a detailed article on how to optimize your next blog post. This infographic from DivvyHQ, a spreadsheet-free editorial calendar application, walks through some steps to promote your content after published.
The only item I'm a bit hesitant on is asking other bloggers to promote your content. If you write great content, other bloggers will share it… I feel like it's a bit rude just to ask. I might replace this item with paid promotion. Utilizing StumbleUpon Ads, Outbrain, or another system can get your content discovered and shared.